Measurement and Verification (M&V) is the term given to the process for quantifying savings delivered by an Energy Conservation Measure (ECM). Measurement and Verification demonstrates how much energy the ECM has avoided using, rather than the total cost saved. The latter can be affected by many factors, such as energy prices. The Measurement and Verification process enables the energy savings delivered by the ECM to be isolated and fairly evaluated.
Various protocols for good practice in Measurement and Verification exist, including the International Performance Measurement and Verification Protocol (IPMVP) which defines common terminology and the key steps in implementing a robust M&V process.
A key part of the M&V process is the development of an 'M&V Plan', which defines how the savings analysis will be conducted before the ECM is implemented. This provides a degree of objectivity that is absent if the savings are simply evaluated after implementation.
With LEED v4, M&V has evolved to include Building-Level Water Metering (WEp2 for EBOM, WEp3 for NC) and Building-Level Energy Metering (EAp3) prerequisites requiring data to be tracked and reported at a minimum of one-month intervals shared with USGBC for 5 years. An Advanced Energy Metering credit requires additional meters for any individual energy end use that accounts for at least 10% of total consumption for New Construction and 20% for Existing Buildings, with data required to be transmitted and accessed remotely at hourly intervals. With increasing rigor and technical requirements, the M&V process continues to leverage new technologies and integrations in the building automation system to provide facility managers a more granular view of energy savings opportunities.